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    英语语法:非限制性定语从句
    编辑:admin 更新时间:2017-12-7 11:10:01 来源:中学英语网 【字号: 】 浏览:

      非限定性定语从句起补充说明作用,在句子中不充当成分,缺少也不会影响全句的理解,它与主句往往用逗号隔开。定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,将非限定性定语从句放在句子中间,其前后都需要用逗号隔开。

      1. who引导的非限制性定语从句
      Our guide,who was a French Canadian,was an excellent cook.我们的向导,一个法裔加拿大人,擅长于烹调。
      My gardener,who is very pessimistic,says that there will be no apples this year.我家的园丁非常悲观,他说今年将不结苹果。

      2. whom引导的非限制性定语从句
      关系代词whom用于指人,在句中作动词宾语和介词宾语,作介词宾语时,介词可位于句末。如:
      Peter, whom you met in London, is now back in Paris.彼得现在回巴黎了,你在伦敦见过他。
      Mr Smith,from whom I have learned a lot,is a famous scientist.史密斯先生是一位著名的科学家,我从他那儿学了许多东西。

      3. whose引导的非限制性定语从句
      whose是关系代词who的所有格形式,在从句中作定语。whose通常指人,也可指动物或无生命的事物。如:
      The boy, whose father is an engineer, studies very hard.那位小男孩学习很努力,他的父亲是位工程师。
      Above the trees are the mountains whose magnificence the river faithfully reflects on the surface. 在树林的高处是山,其壮丽的景色完全映照在河面上。The play,whose style is rigidly formal,is typical of the period.这剧本是那个时期的典型作品,风格拘谨刻板。

      4. which引导的非限制性定语从句
      关系代词which在非限制性定语从句中所指代和修饰的可以是主句中的名词、形容词、短语、其他从句或整个主句,在从句中作主语、动词宾语、介词宾语或表语。
      ① which指代主句中的名词,被指代的名词包括表示物、婴儿或动物的名词、表示单数意义的集体名词以及表示职业、品格等的名词。如:
      These apple trees,which I planted three years ago,have not borne any fruit.这些苹果树是我三年前栽的,还没有结过果实。
      She is an artist,which I am not.她是一位艺术家,而我不是。
      Water,which is a clear liquid,has many uses.水是一种清澈的液体,有许多用途。
      The two policemen were completely trusted,which in fact they were.那两个警察完全受到信任,事实上,也真是如此。
      ② which指代主句中的形容词。如:
      She was very patient towards the children,which her husband seldom was.她对孩子们很耐心,她丈夫却很少这样。
      She is always careless,which we should not be. 她总是马虎大意,我们可不应该这样。
      ③ which指代主句中的某个从句。如:
      He said that he had never seen her before,which was not true.他说以前从没见过她,这不是真的。
      ④ which指代整个主句。如:
      In the presence of so many people he was little tense, which was understandable.在那么多人面前他有点紧张,这是可以理解的。
      He may have acute appendicitis,in which case he will have to be operated on.他可能得了急性盲肠炎,如果是这样,他就得动手术。
      When deeply absorbed in work,which he often was,he would forget all about eating and sleeping. 他经常聚精会神地工作,这时他会废寝忘食。

      5. when引导的非限制性定语从句
      关系副词when在非限制性定语从句中作时间状语,指代主句中表示时间的词语。如:
      He will put off the picnic until May 1st, when he will be free.他将把郊游推迟到5月1号,那时他将有空。

      6. where引导的非限制性定语从句
      关系副词where在非限制性定语从句中作地点状语,指代主句中表示地点的词语。如:
      They went to London,where they lived for six months.他们去了伦敦,在那儿呆了六个月的时间。
      They reached there yesterday, where a negotiation of sale will be held.他们昨天抵达那里, 有一个关于销售的谈判在那儿举行。

      7. as引导的非限制性定语从句
      as引出非限定性定语从句时,代替整个主句,对其进行说明但通常用于像as we allaknow, as it is know, as is know to all, as it is, as is said above, as always mentioned above, as is usual, as is often the case, as is reported in the newspaper等句式中。as在非限定性定语从句中作主语、表语或宾语,且引出的从句位置比较灵活,可位于句首或句末,也可置于主句中间。通常均由逗号将其与主句隔开。as有“正如……, 就像……”之意。 如:
      As it known to the United States, Mark Twain is a great American writer.美国人都知道,马克?吐温是一位伟大的美国作家。(as在从句中作主语)
      He forgot to bring his pen with him, as was often the case. 他忘了带笔,这是常事。(as在从句中作主语)
      He is absorbed in work, as he often was. 他正在全神贯注地工作,他过去经常这样。(as在从句中作表语)
      Boy as he was, he was chosen king. 他虽是孩子,却被选为国王。(as在从句中作表语)
      as we all know, the earth is round.众所周知,地球是圆的。 (as在从句中作宾语)
      The two brothers were satisfied with this decision,as was agreed beforehand.两兄弟对此决定都满意,这项决定在事前都已得到他们的同意。(as在从句中作主语)
      Taiwan is,as you know,an inseparable part of China.你知道,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分。(as在从句中作宾语)

      8. “介词+关系代词”引导的非限制性定语从句
        在介词后引导非限制性定语从句。关系代词which有时并不代表主句中某一确定的词,而是概括整个主句的意思。介词的选择取决于它与先行词的搭配或与从句中谓语动词的搭配。
      They were short of sticks to make frames for the climbing vines,without which the yield would be halved. 他们缺搭葡萄架的杆儿,没有它们产量会减少一半。
      They thanked Tom,without whose support they would not have succeeded.这些邻居是北京来的,昨天我被介绍同他们认识了。

      9. “名词/代词+of+which / whom”引导的非限制性定语从句
      It now has 20,000 hectares of land,more than two-thirds of which are under cultivation. 现在它拥有两万公顷土地,其中三分之二之多已经耕种。
      Light is the fast thing in the world, the speed of which is 300.000 kilometeThere are 30 chairs in the small hall, most of which are new.大厅里有三十把椅子,绝大部分是新的。
      he textile mill has over 8,000 workers and staff,eighty per cent of whom are women. 这家纺织厂有8千多职工,女职工占百分之八十。

      通过对该从句的讲解,大家可以看出,它的种类真的是非常多,不同的词语引导的从句用法都是不同的,大家要学会区分不同用法所表示的含义。虽然该从句在选择题中考察的非常多,但是大家在阅读题中也会看见这样的从句,所以说,大家学习语法知识并不只是为了语法的题目,它对于大家整个英语水平的提升都是非常有帮助的。除此之外大家还要注意一些非限制性定语从句引导词的特殊情况:

      1. 非限制性定语从句不可用that引导, 在非限制性定语从句中用who(作主语) / whom(作宾语)指人,用which(作主语 / 宾语)指物, 用whose作定语(指人 / 物)。例如:
      The famous basketball star, who tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention.
      这位试图打反击的著名篮球明星吸引了众人的关注。
      The film, whose director is an old man, is very instructive.
      这部电影很有教育意义, 它的导演是位老人。

      2. 关系代词在非限制性定语从句中作宾语时不可省略,若指人时,只用whom,不用who。例如:
      York, which I visited last year, is a nice old city.
      我去年访问过的约克是个古老而美丽的城市。
      Please give the book to Jessica, whom we met in the hall just now.
      请把这本书交给杰西卡,就是刚才我们在大厅里遇到的那位。

      3. 非限制性定语从句不可用why引导, 需用for which替代why。例如:
      None of us accepted the reason he explained, for which he was absent.
      我们没有一个人接受他所解释的缺席的理由。


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