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    中考英语语法:介词正误辨析
    编辑:admin 更新时间:2012-10-22 17:30:00 来源:中学英语网 【字号: 】 浏览:

    [误] We got to the top of the mountain in daybreak.
    [正] We got to the top of the mountain at day break.
    [析] at用于具体时刻之前,如:sunrise, midday, noon, sunset, midnight, night。
    [误] Don't sleep at daytime
    [正] Don't sleep in daytime.
    [析] in 要用于较长的一段时间之内,如:in the morning / afternoon, 或 in the week / month / year. 或 in spring / supper /autumn / winter等等。[误] We visited the old man in Sunday afternoon.
    [正] We visited the old man on Sunday afternoon.
    [析] in the morning, in the afternoon 如果在这两个短语中加入任何修饰词其前面的介词都要改为on, 如:on a cold morning, on the morning of July 14th
    [误] He became a writter at his twenties
    [正] He became a writter in his twenties
    [析] 这句话应译为:他在20多岁时就成了作家。在某人的一段生活时间段中要用介词in来表示,而在具体岁数时用at来表示。
    [误] He went to New York to find a job in sixteen years old.
    [正] He went to New York to find a job at sixteen.
    [析] 在具体年岁前用at, 如:at the age of 12, at your age, 等等。
    [误] We went to swim in the river in a very hot day.
    [正] We went to swim in the river on a very hot day.
    [析] 具体某一天要用介词on, 又如:on New Year's Day
    [误] I'm looking forward to seeing you on Christmas.
    [正] I'm looking for ward to seeing you at Christmas.
    [析] 在节日的当天用on,而全部节日期间用at,Christmas是圣诞节期间,一般要有两周或更长的时间。
    [误] I haven't see you during the summer holidays.
    [正] I haven't seen you since the beginning of the summer holidays.
    [析] during表示在某一段时间之内,所以一般不与完成时搭配,如:I visited a lot of museums during the holiday. 而for表示一段时间,可以用于完成时,如:I haven't see you for a long time. 而through 用来表示时间时则为"整整,全部的时间"。如:It rained through the night.而since则是表达主句动作的起始时间,一般要与完成时连用。
    [误] At entering the classroom, I heard the good news.
    [正] On entering the classroom, I heard the good news.
    [析] On 加动名词表示"一……就"。本句的译文应是:我一进入教室就听见这个好消息了。又如:on hearing… 一听见, on arrival 一到达就……(on表示动作的名词)
    [误] In the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.
    [正] At the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.
    [析] at the begining与at the end都是指某事物的开始与结束部分,均不指时间范围,而in the beginning 则是指开始一段时间。in the end=at last是指"最终,终于"之意。
    [误] Till the end of next week. I will have finished this work.
    [正] By the end of next week. I will have finished this work.
    [析] by 引起的时间状语表示了动作的截止点,其意思为"不迟于某一时刻将工作做完",所以主句一般是完成时态。当然可以有将来时态,如:I'll be there by five o'clock.而till则表达其一动作一直持续到某一时刻,但句中的动词一定要用持续性动词,而瞬间的截止性动词应用其否定句式,如:I won't finish this work till(until) next weekend.
    [误] He came to London before last weekend.
    [正] He had come to London before last weekend.
    [正] He came to London two weeks ago.
    [析] before 一般要与完成时连用,而ago则与一般过去时连用。
    [误] I have studied English for three years gince I had come here.
    [正] I have studied English for three years since I came here.
    [析] since用来表达主句动作的开始时间,所以其引出的从句中应为过去时,而不能用完成时态
    [误] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it after two hours.
    [正] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it in two hours.
    [析] 中文经常讲两小时之后来取,两天内会修好,而这个介词在英文中要用in而不要用after。其原因有二,①after 多用于过去时,如:I arrived in New York. After three days, I found a job in the bank. ② after 加时间是表达一个不确定的时间范围,如:after three days, 即三天之后的哪一天都可以。所以在许诺若干时间内会完成某事时,一定要用介词in。


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