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高考英语语法:被动语态
编辑:admin 时间:2015/6/26 11:38:30 来源:中学英语网

一、被动语态含义与构成

(一)被动语态的含义
     语态是动词的一种形式,用以表示主语和谓语之间的关系。
     英语的语态分为主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。
(二)被动语态的构成
     被动语态通常由助动词be加及物动词的过去分词构成。被动语态可以用于各种时态,但是较常用的有下列10种:
1. 一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词
Such things are only eaten by animals.这些东西只有动物才吃。
I am not so easily deceived.我不会轻易上当受骗的。
I am not easily annoyed at trifles.我不轻易为一些小事生气。
The destroyer is reported to have been sunk.据报道,这艘驱逐舰被击沉了。
He is abstracted by a bird outside the classroom.他的注意力溜到教室外的小鸟身上。
The Governor-General of Canada is appointed by Queen Elizabeth.加拿大总督是由伊丽莎白女王任命的。
2. 一般过去时:was/were+过去分词
Printing was introduced into Europe from China.印刷术是从中国传入欧洲的。
I was answered nothing.我没有得到任何答复。
The singer was loudly applauded by the audience.这位歌唱家博得观众的响亮掌声。
The injured were allowed home after treatment.受伤者在治疗后获准回家。
The drought areas were not abandoned.干旱地区没有被人置之不理。
3. 一般将来时:shall/will be+过去分词
The decision of the Supreme Court shall not be appealed against.最高法院的这一判决为终审判决。
This matter will be looked into in the future.这件事将来是要查明的。
We hope that an agreement will be arrived at.我们希望达成一项协议。
4. 一般过去将来时:should/would be+过去分词
He said that the bridge would be built next year.他说这座桥明年将建成。
He consented that his house should be searched.他同意搜查他的房子。
Another half-hour and all doors would be locked—all lights extinguished.再过半小时,所有的门都要上锁——所有的灯都将熄灭。
He said that another test would be needed, adding that preparations must be made just now.他说需要再做一次试验,接着又说必须立即作好准备。
5. 现在完成时:has/have been+过去分词
The cholera outbreak has been contained.霍乱的发生已被控制住了。
He has been appointed to teach at the new school.他已经被委派到那所新学校去教书。
The data have been admitted to be correct.这些资料已被公认为是正确的。
Terms of payment have now been agreed.付款条件现已得到认可。
6. 过去完成时:had been+过去分词
If my advice had been acted upon,the firm would not have gone bankrupt.如果我的建议被采纳,公司就不会破产了。
As soon as the details had been agreed upon, the results would be proclaimed.一旦细节问题取得一致意见,结果将予以公布。
He felt that he had been deliberately fooled by that man.他觉得那个人故意捉弄了他。
The witness affirmed to the fact the thief had been caught in the act.这位目击者证实那贼是在行窃时当场被捉的。
7. 将来完成时:shall/will+have been+过去分词
The new books will have been entered in the register before another parcel arrives.这些新书在下一批书到来前将登记完毕。
This class will have been taught by Mr Wu.
Brown for two years by next summer.到明年夏天,这个班将由布朗先生教两年了。
8. 过去将来完成时:should/would+have been+过去分词
He said that the bridge would have been completed before July.他说这座桥将于7月前建成。
The headmaster said the article would have been translated by six o'clock.校长说这篇文章将在6点钟以前翻译完毕。
Alone,he would have been terrified.如果是孤身一人,他会吓坏的。
9. 现在进行时:am/is/are being+过去分词
My bicycle is not available, it is being repaired.我的自行车现在不能用,因为正在修理。
The site is being developed.这块地正在被开发利用。
The gardens of the great house are being flung open to the public.这个大宅子的花园将宣布对公众开放。
Don't believe all these stories that are being put about.不要相信所有这些谣传。10过去进行时:was/were being+过去分词
She discovered that she was being closely watched.她发现被人监视。
He gave me a hint that I was being cheated.他暗示我在受人欺骗。
It seemed to be getting windy;the leaves were being blown about.好像起风了,树叶吹得到处都是。
I discovered that I had been excepted from the list of those who were being sent to Italy.我发现我并没有包括在派往意大利去的人的名单上。


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