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动词的语态(第一章)
编辑:admin 时间:2012/10/7 17:00:00 来源:中学英语网

     动词的语态是动词的一种形式,它用来表示句中主语同谓语动词之间的关系。

     语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。

1. 被动语态的构成:be + 过去分词

A building was damaged by the storm. 暴风雨毁坏了一座建筑物。
Our plate was made in China. 我们的盘子是中国生产的。
My bike was stolen. 我的自行车被盗了。
注意:"be + 过去分词 " 并非都是被动语态,系动词 be, feel, seem, look, 等词后面的过去分词已转化为形容词,作表语用,表示某种状态。
I'm interested in mathematics. 我对数学感兴趣。
He seems unsatisfied with his work. 他看起来对他的工作不满意。
We are determined to catch up with the developed countries. 我们决心要赶上发达国家
The song is called "Don't forget me". 歌曲的名字叫 “ 勿忘我 ”

2. 常用的被动语态的时态变化如下,以 ask 为例: 

            一般                        进行                             完成
现在 I am asked,       I am being asked,        I have been asked
过去 I was asked,      I was being asked,      I had been asked
将来 I shall/will be asked,                          I shall/will have been asked

3. 情态动词 + be + 过去分词,构成被动语态。

Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.
注意:若宾语补足语是不带 to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要加 "to" 。此类动词为感官动词。 feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch

The teacher made me go out of the classroom. >> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).
We saw him play football on the playground. >> He was seen to play football on the playground.

4. let 的用法

1)当 let 后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带 to 的不定式。
They let the strange go. >> The strange was let go.
2)若 let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用 allow 或 permit 代替。
The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital. >> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital.

5. 短语动词的被动语态

短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。
This is a photo of the power station that has been set up in my hometown.
My sister will be taken care of by Grandma.
Such a thing has never been heard of before.


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